D & F BlockD & F Block - Complete Collection
Class 12 Chemistry: D & F Block - Complete Collection
- In the periodic table the d block consist of the elements of group 3 to 12.
- The d orbital of the d-block elements in four periods are filled.
- The three series of the transitionmetals are 3d series from Sc to Zn, 4d series from Y to Cd and 5dseries from La to Hg.
- The fourth 6dseries begins from Ac and is incomplete till now.
- The d-block elements are found in the middle section of s- and p- block elements in the periodic elements.
- This lead to its name ‘transition’ due to its position between s- and p- block elements.
- The elements with gradually filled f orbitals are called f-block elements.
- The elements of 4f series of the inner transition metals are called lanthanoids whereas the elements of 5f series are called actinoids.
Problem: Actinoid contraction is greater from element to element than lanthanoid contraction. Why?
Solution: In actinoids, 5f orbitals are filled having poorer shielding effect than 4f orbitals (in lanthanoids) due to which the effective nuclear charge experienced by the electrons in valence shells of actinoids is more than what is experienced by lanthanoids. Therefore, the size of contraction in actinoids is greater as compared to that in lanthanoids. They are termed as inner transition elements due to their occurence inside the series of transition elements.
- Iron and steels are used for making tools, utensils, vehicles, bridges and much more.
- TiO for the pigment industry and MnO2 for use in dry battery cells.
- Zn and Ni/Cd is also used for battery industry.
- Elements of Group 11 called the coinage metals.
- V2O5 catalyses the oxidation of SO2 in the manufacture ofsulphuric acid.
- TiCl4 with A1(CH3)3 forms the basis of the Ziegler catalystsused to manufacture polyethylene (polythene).
- Iron catalysts are used inthe Haber process for the production of ammonia from N2/H2 mixtures.
- Nickel catalysts enable the hydrogenation of fats
- Wackerprocess the oxidation of ethyne to ethanal is catalysed by PdCl2.
- Nickel useful in the polymerisation of alkynes and other organiccompounds such as benzene.
- The photographic industry relies on thespecial light-sensitive properties of AgBr.
Problem: Write down the electronic configuration of:
(i) Cr3+ (iii) Cu+ (v) Co2+ (vii) Mn2+
(ii) Pm3+ (iv) Ce4+ (vi) Lu2+ (viii) Th4+
(i) Cr3+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3
(ii) Pm3+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d105s2 5p6 4f4
Or, [Xe]54 3d3
(iii) Cu+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10
Or, [Ar]18 3d10
(iv) Ce4+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6
(v) Co2+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d7
(vi) Lu2+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d1
(vii) Mn2+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5
Or, [Ar]18 3d5
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